Chinook Jargon Phrasebook

Kahta Mamook Kopa Chinook Wawa - How to speak Chinook

Verbs & Concepts

I am just beginning the process of completing and codifying this section.  Rather than an alphabetic listing, as is usual, I have tried to group verbs according to category, both in the Chinook-English section as well as in the English-Chinook, so the distinctions between them are more apparent.  This is not always easy, so there may be some oddities here, and some errors of omission.  The many compound usages I have grouped in their own sections, as well as made reference to them elsewhere.  The English-Chinook section will remain incomplete; if you're looking for a specific word please consult the main dictionary.

At my second revision I considered a logical way to introduce the verbs and verb compounds, but there are no exactly transitive or intransitive words in the Jargon (only words, pure and simple) and the use of compounds bridges the customary differences in other languages (language theorists are welcome to explain my mistake to me in this, if I've made one).  Even "verbs of motion", "abstract verbs" etc. don't work as categories because the same compounds can sometimes be in either category.  There also was no point to alphabetization of this page (except for the English-Chinook section)  What I've decided is to introduce the most commonly first-learned words that anyone learning a language from scratch needs to know; and as in other languages it happens that these are the most common for forming compound verbs - the way aller, etre, vouloir etc. are used in French or "to do", "to have" etc. are in English, with the difference here that compound-formation in the Jargon does not (necessarily) have anything to do with tense, but rather with the creation of whole new concepts, sometimes bizarrely different from the original meaning, yet fairly obvious in concept/construction; sometimes not so obviously, as you'll see.  Often very originally, however.  The minidex just below also provides direct links to compounds formed of the most common compound-forming verbs; the same links will also be found for the entries for each root-verb in addition to the most-needed compounds of each verb; a full list of their compounds (or possible/theoretical compounds) can be found by clicking on the relevant link in each section; some of which are necessarily cross-linked, as in the case of, for example, chako kumtux.  Not all compounds of these verbs are necessarily verbs, but they are included here as examples of the verb's uses and underlying concept.

 

Chinook-English
English-Chinook

Verb List with Idioms | Mamook Compounds | Kumtux Compounds | Tumtum Compounds |
Cultus Compounds | Chako Compounds | Klatawa Compounds | Other Verbal Compounds | Concepts
 

Verb List with Idioms

 
Please note that many nouns are used as verbs and vice versa, and that there may not have been a conceptual distinction between a thing or idea and its action. There are no conjugations for Chinook verbs; tense and person indicated by the use of other words, but not by compounding of verbs. Many adjectives and adverbs can also function as nouns, and vice-versa, with or without the use of compounds using mamookkumtux, tumtum, cultus, chako, or compounds using other words.  I have included many words that were not only in local use, or not widespread, when there are no others with the same meaning. I've also taken the dare to comment on possible modern contexts or other meanings and usages not included in the historic sources.
 
Mamook - to make, to do, to do; also "an action"
Similar to the French "faire". Extensively used for compounds - Mamook Compounds.  NB Mamooks - deeds

Mamook kloshe
Mamook huy-huy
Mamook ikpooie
Mamook klatawa


Mitlite - to be, to be at, to stay, to remain, to live at/in, to be alive, to sit down, to remain
As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".

Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.
Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"
Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"
Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"
Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?
Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small".
Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.

Mahah, mahish, mahsh - to sell, to do business, to leave, to release, to turn out, to throw away, to part with, to remove.  Most common form is mahsh.

Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.
Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.
Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.
Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth.
Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.
Mahsh kow - to untie.
Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?).
Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.
Mahsh Compounds

Tumtum - to feel, to know, to believe, to think, to intend, to have a mind to do something.
Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds.

Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm
Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed
Heehee tumtum - to be amused
Klee tumtum - to be happy
Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind

Kumtux, kumptus, kommatux - to know, to understand, to remember, to know how to do something, to think
Note that tumtum as to think refers more to feeling, kumtux more to understanding in the abstract sense, as in the way of knowledge or concrete things known. Kumtux Compounds.
 

Kumtux Dutchman wawa - to understand German, or to be able to speak German. (Dutchman could also mean Dutch, Norwegian, or any other northen or eastern European language/people other than English and French)
Kiuatan yaka kumtux cooley - fast horse, race horse
See Kumtux Compounds.


Potlatch, Patlatch - to give, to receive
As a noun, a gift, a giving, or a gift-feast, one of the main instruments of Northwest society/economy and a lynchpin of ceremonial and political activity between different families, bands and nations.

Cultus potlatch - a gift, or a worthless gift.
Mamook potlatch - to make a gift (of something) or to throw a potlatch-feast. The institution of the potlatch was a foundation of Northwest Coast society and economics, and is worthy of a whole webpage of its own.

Iskum - to take, to receive, to hold, to have, to get.  Iskum Compounds.

Maika na iskum? - Did you get it? Do you have it?
Ticky Iskum - want to have/own

Tikegh, tikke, ticky - to want, to love, to like, to wish, to need
Hyas ticky - to long for, to pine, to greatly want/desire.
Ikta maika ticky?  - What do you want?
Wake ticky kahkwa wawa naika - "do not speak like that to me"., i.e. "do not want (presume) that of me".
Ticky muckamuck - want food, need food, more meaning "get some" rather than "hungry"; olo muckamuck more means "hungry" per se.
Tikegh Compounds.

Muckamuck - food, to eat

Mamook muckamuck - cook food, make dinner
Olo muckamuck - to be hungry
Hyas muckamuck - feast, big meal
Hiyu muckamuck - lots of food
High muckamuck - bigshot, one who sits at the head table, corruption of hiyu/hyas muckamuck - (somebody) with lots of food.  Giving away copious amounts of food (and lots of other stuff) at the potlatch (a big feast, lit. a big give-away) distinguished someone in local society,

Mitwhit - to stand, to stay still, to wait

Mitwhit youtl- to stand proud, to stand tall
Mitwhit skookum- to resist, to stand up (bravely)

Nanitch - to see, to look, to behold, to watch, "watch out!", to look for

Kloshe nanitch

Klap - to find, to remember

Mamook klap - to seek ("make found").
Klap tenass - to be with child.
Klap tumtum, klap kumtux - more specifically "to remember" than simply klap.

Klatawa - go, walk, travel

Klatawa teawhit - to walk, to go on foot.
Klatawa kopa kiuatan or klatawa kopa cayoosh - to ride a horse.  Klatawa kiuatan would more likely mean "the horse goes", "the horse is walking".
Klatawa kopa boat or klatawa kopa ship - to take a boat, or to sail.
Klatawa sail - to unfurl the sails, to sail by wind.  In the historic context, I would consider klatawa kopa ship to involve a major journey, as ship referred to ocean-going sailing ships or, later on, to steamers. Klatawa kopa sail would mean "to to by sailboat" (as opposed to steam or paddle/oarcraft).
Mamook klatawa - to send. See Mamook Compounds.


Chako - to come, to arrive

Ko - to reach, to arrive at

Kopet - stop, to stop, to leave off

Kalapi - to turn, to return, to upset, to turn over

Tseepie - to mistake, to be in error

Tseepie wayhut - to take the wrong road


Cooley, coolie - run

Kawak - to fly

Kwalal-kwalal - to gallop
The accent is on the second syllable of each kwalal.  NB difference from kalakala - bird.

Wawa - to talk, to say
Also means "speech" and "words", "language". Note Cantonese wa - word, wa-wa - words.

Mamook [x]  lalang is the same as mamook [x] wawa - to speak [x] language, except in the case of the jargon itself, for which only mamook Chinook wawa would be more specific, though unnecessary by context, perhaps; the preposition kopa might be used in these phrases following mamook.  Also mamook yiem - "to tell a story" may be the same as mamook wawa, to relate, to tell, although the latter instance more refers to making a speech, or having a conversation.

Yiem - to relate, to tell a story; also "a story"
The Chinook loan-word ekahnam was also used on the Lower Columbia, the Salishan loan-word siyem in the Fraser-Thompson.

Huyhuy, hui-hui - to trade, to do business, to barter
Thought to originate from French oui-oui/ouai-ouai (yes, yes), referring to the conclusion of a deal, or spoken in encouragement of one.

Mamook huyhuy - to strike a deal.

Mahkook - to buy, to do business. Can mean to sell or to trade

Kapswalla - to steal. Klatawa kapswalla - to go/travel stealthily/silently

Ipsoot - to hide, hidden.

Mamook ipsoot - to hide, to be hidden, lit. to make hidden

Ikpooie, mamook ikpooie - shut, to shut
Mamook ikpooie could also mean "to surround".

Klak, klah - off, to take off, to get off
This is adjectival as much as it is a verb.

Mamook klak lassiet - take off the plates, remove the plates.
Klak kopa wayhut - to get out of the road.
Mamook klak stone kiuatan - to castrate a horse.


Ko-ko - to knock
perhaps originally a compound of ko - i.e. "someone's come" (as well as onomatopaeoia),

Koko stick - woodpecker
Kloshe koko stick - (better) knock on wood


Moosum - sleep, to sleep

Memaloose, memaloost - to die, dead, a corpse.  Mamook memaloose - to kill.
See mamook memaloose in Mamook Compounds.
 

Klakwun - to wipe, to lick
Apparently from klak - to take off.

Klakwun lassiet - to lick a plate.
Klakwun latab - to wipe a table.

Lolo - to carry. Originally to carry a child on one's back.  Came to mean to carry or tote anything. Note this spelling is also used for lo'lo or lowullo, where the apostrophe or '-wu-' is a glottal stop, which means round, or whole, or the entirety of anything.

Haul - to haul, to carry, to lift

Tolo - to earn, to gain, to win
Perhaps related to tola, dollah - dollar, money

Kow - to tie, to tie up, to fasten

Stoh - to loose, to untie

Tl'kope - to cut, to slice, to chop NB difference from t'kope - white. The "tl" sound is common in Northwest languages, and more resembles a "kl" or hard "lh"; "tl" commonly represents the same sound as "kl" in English-derived spellings of the Jargon; in reality they are the same sound - but as far as I know kl'kope was never used for this word.  All words that have "kl" in them could just as easily be spelled "tl", the sounds being indistinguishable and the spellings representative only of a choice made by the transcriber.  The same is true of words spelled with "lh", "lt" and "tlh" and the like.  See Pronunciation.

Kokshut - to break, broken, to beat
Originally "dead".

Hyas kokshut - broken to pieces ("very broken").
Konaway kokshut - everything in ruins, i.e. big plans shot down.

Kwulh, kwult - to hit, to wound with an arrow or gun, to strike with a stick or stone, or in any matter without cutting
 

Hullel - to shake, shaken
The sense here is of violent shaking, or trembling, as in a fever or in nervousness
 

Tshish, Chish - to sharpen.  Also means sharp.

Liplip - boil, to boil, boiled, boiling, etc.

Mamook liplip - boil some water, to make something boil

Lagh - to lean, to tip (a boat), to stoop, to bend over (as a tree)

To-to - to shake, to sift, to winnow

Sopena - to jump

Sitshum - to swim

Kishkish - to drive, as in horses or cattle.

Kishkish chickchick - to drive a wagon

Cly - cry, to cry

Heehee - to laugh, or a laugh.  Mamook hee-hee - to have fun, to play

Shantie, shauntie - to sing, a song
Older prononciation would resemble the French "chanter", i.e. shauntie, later on pronounced as the English "shanty", i.e. shantie.

Tanse - to dance, a dance

Wash - to wash

Wagh - to pour, to pour out, to empty, to spill
Also means "empty" ("poured out") and "to vomit".

Mamook wagh - pour out.

Kwutl - to push or squeeze (as in packing), or to make fast or tight
NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit.

Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope).

Get-up - to rise, to get up, to wake up.  Mamook get-up - to wake someone up.

Poh - to blow; a puff of breath. NB Pooh - the sound of a gun firing; mamook pooh - to fire a gun

Wind - to breathe, to be alive. Also breath, wind, etc.

Memaloose - to die, to be dead; also "death" or "a corpse"

Mamook memaloose - to play dead or to kill, i.e. "to make (like) dead", which could also be expressed by kahkwa memaloose

Klemahun - to stab, to wound, to dart, to cast as a spear, to hook or gore (as an ox).

Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.

Mahlie, mahlies, mahliay - to marry
NB Mahlie also means to forget.   (Hmm.  I wonder if there's a connection - "to forget what sex is like", "to forget personal freedom".  Okook cultus heehee - this is a little joke).

Whim, mamook whim - to fell (a tree), to wrestle ("to fell a man").
Gibbs gives his as of Wasco origin, and says it is "of local use only", but I think its usage may have been wider.  Possibly related to wind/win, because of the role wind plays in the natural falling of trees.

Chuk-kin - to kick
Gibbs says this word was of local use in the Chehalis language region only.  A more truly jargon version might be mamook lepee - "make with the foot" or kwulh lepee - "strike with the foot".  However, since chuk-kin is from a Salishan language group, the probability that a similar word would be found among the Chinook-speakers of other Salishan districts of the Coast and Interior - in other words, throughout the majority of the Chinook-speaking region.

Hokumelh - to gather grain, to glean

 

Mamook Compounds

Mamook - "to do" or "to make" was used intensely as a way of forming verbs from other concepts.  The following is only a partial list, and is necessarily incomplete.  The use of mamook was often improvisational, and anyone trying to speak Chinook is encouraged to come up with their own compounds as and when necessary; any usage would be valid.  Also, using mamook with an existing verb evokes the concept of the passive voice, or the sense of "to make one do something" and/or "to become". Some of these usages are given in the published lexicons; others I have extrapolated as examples of compound-formation or as possible meanings of recorded compounds.
 
Mamook lapeep - to share a pipe, i.e. to have a meeting or a chat
Mamook huyhuy - to strike a bargain, to negotiate
Mamook pehpah - to write, to make a contract
Mamook tzum, Mamook tzumtzum - to write
NB Tzum illahee - surveyed land, so mamook tzum illahee - to survey land (to mark the land).
Mamook kumtux - to make understood, to forge an understanding, to come to agreement, to share an idea.
Mamook kumtux lalang, mamook kumtux wawa - to know how to speak a language, to know how to talk.
See kumtux compounds.
Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind
Mamook kloshe tumtum - to make friends, to make peace ("to make good feelings")
Mamook kloshe - to fix, to mend, to heal, to make better, "works good"
NB chako kloshe - to get better, i.e. to become better

Mamook wawa - to speak, to make a speech
Mamook kwolen - to listen

Mamook hee-hee, mamook klee - to make laugh, to make/become happy, to make a joke.
NB Cultus hee-hee - only a jest, "I'm only making a joke".
Mamook cly - to make cry, to sadden, to become sad.  NB cly is a verb in its own right.
Mamook solleks - to make angry, to become angry
Mamook kwass - to frighten, to tame (an animal)
Mamook cultus - to accomplish nothing, to work uselessly, "all that work for nothing", to make something worthless or broken
NB See Cultus Compounds below.
Mamook chickamin - to make money, to earn, to win (at gambling)
Mamook potlatch - to make a gift (of something) or to hold a potlatch-feast
Mamook nanitch - to show, to make a show, to show off
Hyas yaka mamook nanitch - he's really showing off, he's all show.

Mamook pahtl - to fill
Mamook wagh - to pour out
Mamook ikpooie - to shut, also to surround
Mamook hahlakl - to open
Mamook laplash - to spread out
Mamook klah - to uncover, to expose
Mamook klap - to seek ("to make found")
Mamook ipsoot - to hide, to make hidden
Mamook keekwullie - to lower
Mamook saghalie - to raise, to make sacred

Mamook hullel - to shake, to activate, to become active
Mamook haul - to haul or pull. Haul may be used by itself
Mamook klak - to take off, to remove
Mamook klak kopa wayhut - get off the road.
Mamook klak stone kiuatan - to castrate a horse.
Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope)
Mamook lolo - to roll up
Perhaps from both senses of lolo - to carry and round.
Mamook laham - to row
Mamook isick - to paddle
Mamook klatawa - to send, to make to go, to make travel
Mamook chako - to fetch, to make to come
Mamook kalapie - to bring, to send back, to turn around, to carry back (perhaps "to change one's mind")
Mamook illahee - to dig, perhaps to mine
Mamook klawhap - to dig a hole

Mamook muckamuck - to cook or prepare food
Mamook piah - to cook, to burn
Mamook waum - to heat
Mamook liplip - to boil, to cause to boil
Mamook lapellah - to roast over a fire
Mamook lum - to distill, to go get the booze, to get drunk
Mamook chuck - to make water, to go get water
Mamook klahanie - to put outside
Mamook klahanie okook - put that out (i.e. outside)

Mamook paint, mamook pent - to paint
Mamook bloom - to sweep
Mamook wash - to do the washing
Mamook wagh - to pour out
Mamook liplip - to boil, to set to boil, perhaps to stir
Mamook dly - to dry (clothes), i.e. to put out to dry
NB Chako dly - to become dry.
Mamook tupsin, mamook tupshin - to sew, to mend, to patch
Mamook comb - to comb
Mamook tsugh - to split, as in wood
See Chako tsugh in Chako compounds.
Mamook tsugh illahee - to plow the land
Mamook comb illahee - to plow (the land)
Also mamook leshaloo ("to use the plow") and klugh illahee ("to tear the land") or mamook klugh illahee.  Although descriptive of what a plow does, the latter usage seems indicative of the attitudes of natives towards farming's effect/impact on the earth.
Mamook klimmin - to soften as by dressing a skin, or to soften up one's resolve or to make someone lie or to make a lie.
Mamook kull - to harden, to cause to become hard.  NB Chako kull - to become hard
Mamook stone - to turn to stone, to petrify, or to work stone (as in masonry)
Mamook memaloose - to play dead, to kill
Mamook elann - to help
Mamook help might also be used.

Mamook kwunnum - to count ("to make numbers")
Mamook kunsih - to count ("to make how many"), to find out who

Mamook latleh, mamook tren - to make a lot of noise, i.e. to make like a train.  Also found with "kopa" as a preposition, i.e. mamook kopa latleh
Mamook tintin - to ring a bell, to play an instrument

Kapswalla mamook - to do secretly, to use stealth ("to steal" in its alternate/archaic sense in English)
NB difference from Kapswalla klatawa - to steal away, to sneak out, to sneak away, to move about steathily.

 

 

Kumtux Compounds

The main meaning of kumtux is to understand, as a language, or how to do something.  Its main difference to tumtum is that the latter has more to do with ideas, concepts, or feelings.  See Tumtum Compounds.
 
Iskum kumtux - to have knowledge, to keep knowledge e.g. Yaka iskum kumtux - he knows about things.

Kumtux kliminawhit - to know how to lie, to know how to deceive, to understand lying, to recognize a lie/liar e.g. Kumtux kliminawhit - he is a liar ("he knows how to lie") and hyas kumtux kliminawhit - he is a great liar ("he knows well how to lie").

Mamook kumtux - to explain, to teach, to make understood, to forge an understanding, to come to agreement, to share an idea.
See mamook compounds.

Kopet kumtux - to forget, to stop understanding, to stop listening
Duane Pasco uses the Norwegian borrowing glemte for "forget" in a mock Chinook dialogue recounted in Tenas Wawa.  Such substitutions of words from other languages would have been legitimate in Chinook usage if the jargon word was unknown or if both individuals understood the source-language in question.  The jargon was by definition creative in its vocabulary, and in its usages.  In my hoped-for "modern Chinook" such a borrowing, especially one that suits the "tone" of Chinook, is more than welcome.
Hyas kumtux solleks - to be passionate ("to well understand anger").  Other senses of this English phrase might be hyas kumtux ticky, hyas ticky kloshe tumtum, etc.

Halo kumtux - stupid, without understanding
Kumtux cooley - to know how to run
Kiuatan yaka kumtux cooley - fast horse, racehorse
Man yaka kumtux cooley - a good runner, a fast runner
Hyas yaka kumtux cooley - he can run fast ("he knows well how to run").

 

Tumtum Compounds

Although tumtum, which can be both verb and noun, technically means the heart or the will, or to feel or to think, its use in combinations with other verbs and words can create a wide range of meaning. See Kumtux Compounds.
 
Mahsh tumtum - to give orders
Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind
Mamook kloshe tumtum - to make friends, to make peace ("to make good feelings")
Tumtum kunamoxt, kunamoxt tumtum - agreement (to feel together), "we both feel", to be of one mind (of two people)

Sick tumtum - to grieve, to be sorry, to be jealous, to be unhappy, to feel sick
Also functions as an adjective with the same meanings - grief, jealousy, unhappiness, illness, sorrow.
Moxt tumtum naika - I am undecided, i.e. I am of two minds.  Might be said without naika or with another pronoun, e.g. maika.
Maika tumtum - whatever you like, wherever you please (in response to Kah nesaika klatawa? - Where shall we go)
Ikta maika tumtum - what do you think (of that)?
Halo tumtum - without a will of one's own (as a child), without a care, or "I don't care", "I don't have an opinion".

 

 

Cultus Compounds

 
Cultus is not a verb, but is used in many compound expressions with different verbs.  Its use has quite different meanings in each context, as a look at this section will demonstrate.

Cultus mitlite - to sit idle, to exist worthlessly,  to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason
Cultus hee-hee - to only jest, "I'm/he's only making a joke"
Cultus klatawa - to stroll, to amble, to pass the time
Cultus nanitch - to look around, to sight-see, to stare at nothing

There are many non-verbal Cultus Compounds:

Cultus tillikums - common or insignificant persons, nobodies
Cultus ikta(s) - garbage, something broken or useless
Cultus potlatch - a small or humble gift, a trifle, or a worthless/useless gift
Cultus whiteman - damned white man
 

 

Chako Compounds

 
Chako dly - to become dry
Chako tsugh - to become cracked or split, as by the heat of the sun or the fire
Chako klosh - to get well
Chako sick - to become sick

Chako hahlakl - to open out, to become less dense, to be revealed ("to come out of the woods")
Chako klah - to come up (as a seed), to emerge
Chako kull - to become hard
NB mamook kull - to harden, to cause to become hard.

 

 

Klatawa Compounds

Klatawa klah - to escape, to open out (as in landscape or vegetation), to clear up (weather)
Use of klatawa resembles that of English "become", although mamook also works this way in some cases (see mamook klah).
Klatawa klahanie - to go out, to go out of doors
Klatawa delate - to go straight, to go straight on
Klatawa elip - to go first, to go before
Klatawa enati - to cross over, to go across
Klatawa kimta - to go behind, to follow
Klatawa kloshe - travel safely ("go well")

 

 

Other Verbal Compounds

 
Delate wawa - to tell the truth, to talk straight

Kapswalla klatawa - to steal away, to sneak out, to sneak away
Similar to but different from kapswalla mamook - to do secretly, to use stealth (lit. "to steal" in its alternate/archaic English sense).

Kloshe nanitch - look out, take care ("see well")

 

 

Concepts

 
Nawitka - Yes, certainly, indeed, the affirmative, the emphatic. Nawitka kloshe - really good.
Wake - No, not, none, nothing the negative, without
No - No, not, none, the negative, without
Halo - no, not, none, nothing, the negative, without
Cultus - nothing, worthless, bad, faulty, meaningless.
See Cultus Compounds.
Konaway - everything, all
Kopa konaway - absolutely everything, the whole shebang.  Konaway kah - everywhere. Konaway tillikum - everybody, everyone.
Lolo - the entirety of something
Sitkum - half, part (of)
Kotsuk - the middle or centre of something
Weght - again, also, more.
Tenass - less, fewer
Kahkwa - like, similar, as
Weght - also, again, more, even, even as.
Spose - suppose, if, what if
Klonas - maybe, perhaps
Wake kunsih - never
-
Okoke, okook - this, that, here
Kahkwa - like, as, alike
Kahkwa kamooks - like a dog, beastly.
 

Kwanesum, Kwahnesum - always, ever, for ever

 

 

English-Chinook
Chinook-English

This section upon its completion will be necessarily lengthy, as more English verbs and their Chinook equivalents are added.  I've grouped this section alphabetically, and also include the English preposition to indicate that these are the verbal usages; the historic lexicons are sometimes not to clear about that.  Also when a verb has a number of different Chinook Jargon translations I've made separate entries for each translation, as sometimes their contexts are different and each usage has other variants.   Context is everything in the Jargon, so quite often there are alternate meanings for the same Chinook phrase; these are usually indicated.  If there's something not here that you'd like to know, please e-mail me.
 

Verbs

-
to allot -
to allow -
to arrive -  chako - see Chako Compounds.  NB ko is to arrive somewhere
 

to barter - huyhuy, hui-hui - This is thought to originate from French oui-oui/ouai-ouai (yes, yes), referring to the conclusion of a deal, or spoken in encouragement of one.  Mamook huyhuy - to strike a deal.
to be - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to be alive - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to be alive - wind - also means breath, wind, etc.  Also iskum wind - i.e. to have breath.
to be at - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to be dead, to die - memaloose, mimloost - also means "death" or "a corpse".  Mamook memaloose - to play dead or to kill, i.e. "to make (like) dead", which could also be expressed by kahkwa memaloose; possibly also chako memaloose.
to be in error - tseepie - to mistake, to be in error, to err, to fall over - tseepie wayhut - to take the wrong road.

to beat - kokshut, mamook kokshut - Originally meant "dead". Hyas kokshut - broken to pieces ("very broken"). Konaway kokshut - everything in ruins, i.e. big plans shot down.  Kokshut lso means to break, or broken
to become -  chako - see Chako Compounds.
to believe - Tumtum -.  Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds. Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed  Heehee tumtum - to be amused  Klee tumtum - to be happy Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind.  If used to mean "to sense something", the act of sensation is as much that of feeling as of the physical senses, i.e. "know in the heart".
to behold - Nanitch -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to bend over (as a tree) - lagh, lah.
to blow - poh - to blow - also means a puff of breath.  NB pooh is a rifle or gunshot, or the sound made by a gun
to boil - liplip, mamook liplip - also means boiled, boiling, etc.  Mamook liplip - boil some water, to make something boil
to break - kokshut, mamook kokshut - Originally meant "dead". Hyas kokshut - broken to pieces ("very broken"). Konaway kokshut - everything in ruins, i.e. big plans shot down.  Kokshut lso means to beat.
to breathe - wind - also breath, wind, etc.
to buy - mahkook.  Also means "things bought" when used as a noun.

to carry - lolo.  Originally to carry a child on one's back, and came to mean to carry or tote anything (Gibbs); possibly adapted from a French working expression used in portaging and labour, i.e. la-la ("that there"). Note this spelling is also used for lo'lo or lowullo, where the apostrophe or '-wu-' is a glottal stop, which means round, or whole, or the entirety of anything.
to carry - haul, mamook haul
to cast (as a spear) - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  Klemahun opoots - bee.
to clean - klakwun, klakwun kloshe (or mamook kloshe) - Apparently from klak - to take off.  Klakwun lassiet - to lick a plate.  Klakwun latab - to wipe a table.
to close a deal - huyhuy, hui-hui - This is thought to originate from French oui-oui/ouai-ouai (yes, yes), referring to the conclusion of a deal, or spoken in encouragement of one.  Mamook huyhuy - to strike a deal.
to comb - mamook comb.
to come -  chako - see Chako Compounds.
to come to an end - kopet, kobit, kobet, kapet; also chako kopetKopet Compounds.  NB ko is to arrive somewhere.
to control - tolo - Perhaps related to tola, dollah - dollar, money.  Also means to gain, to win, to earn.
to cry - cly.  NB mamook cly - to make someone cry.
to discover - klap , chee klap, mamook klap - to seek (i.e. to "make found").
to command - Mahah, mahish, mahsh; also mahsh wawa, mahish wawa, mahah wawa - Most common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to dance - tanse, also mamook tanse - also means "a dance"
to dart (i.e. like a small arrow, not as in sewing) - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  Klemahun opoots - bee.
to depart - Mahah, mahish, mahshMost common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.  Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.  Mahsh kow - to untie. Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to devour - muckamuck -   Mamook muckamuck - cook food, make dinner. Muckamuck chuck - to drink.  Olo muckamuck - to be hungry. Hyas muckamuck - feast, big meal.  Hiyu muckamuck - lots of food.  High muckamuck - bigshot, one who sits at the head table, corruption of hiyu/hyas muckamuck - (somebody) with lots of food.  Giving away copious amounts of food (and lots of other stuff) at the potlatch (a big feast, lit. a big give-away) distinguished someone in local society.
to die, to be dead - memaloose, mimloost - also means "death" or "a corpse".  Mamook memaloose - to play dead or to kill, i.e. "to make (like) dead", which could also be expressed by kahkwa memaloose; possibly also chako memaloose. See mamook memaloose in Mamook Compounds.
to do - mamook - Similar to the French "faire". Extensively used for compounds - Mamook CompoundsBUT NB Mamooks - deeds; and mamook also means "an action" and always implies one in any compound.  Mamook kloshe - to fix, to heal, to get better (chako kloshe also).  Mamook huy-huy - to strike a deal, to do business.  Mamook ikpooie - to hide, to make hidden.  Mamook klatawa - to go, to make go. Mamook mahkook - to go shopping, to do business.  NB in Grande Ronde OR Chinuk-wawa mamook is an obscenity for copulation; for regular use as to do, to use, etc. the word munk is used there.
to do business - mahkook.  Also means "things bought" when used as a noun.
to do business - huyhuy, hui-hui - This is thought to originate from French oui-oui/ouai-ouai (yes, yes), referring to the conclusion of a deal, or spoken in encouragement of one.  Mamook huyhuy - to strike a deal.
to do business -Mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to drink - muckamuck -   Mamook muckamuck - cook food, make dinner. Muckamuck chuck - to drink.  Olo muckamuck - to be hungry. Hyas muckamuck - feast, big meal.  Hiyu muckamuck - lots of food.  High muckamuck - bigshot, one who sits at the head table, corruption of hiyu/hyas muckamuck - (somebody) with lots of food.  Giving away copious amounts of food (and lots of other stuff) at the potlatch (a big feast, lit. a big give-away) distinguished someone in local society.
to drive, as in horses or cattle - kishkish - Kishkish chickchick - to drive a wagon

to eat - muckamuck -   Mamook muckamuck - cook food, make dinner. Muckamuck chuck - to drink.  Olo muckamuck - to be hungry. Hyas muckamuck - feast, big meal.  Hiyu muckamuck - lots of food.  High muckamuck - bigshot, one who sits at the head table, corruption of hiyu/hyas muckamuck - (somebody) with lots of food.  Giving away copious amounts of food (and lots of other stuff) at the potlatch (a big feast, lit. a big give-away) distinguished someone in local society.
to earn - tolo - Perhaps related to tola, dollah - dollar, money.  Also means to win, to gain, to control
to empty - wagh, mamook wagh -   Also means "empty" ("poured out") plus to pour, to spill, to vomit.
to end - kopet, kobit, kobet, kapetKopet Compounds.
to err - tseepie - tseepie wayhut - to take the wrong road.
to exist - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.  NB To be alive - wind, iskum wind.

to fall over - tseepie - NB also to upset, to cause something to fall over - kilapi; and NB tseepie wayhut - to take the wrong road.
to fasten - kow, mamook kow -  NB mahsh kow - untie Mahsh - to release, to let go.
to feel - Tumtum -.  Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds. Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed  Heehee tumtum - to be amused  Klee tumtum - to be happy Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind.  If used to mean "to sense something", the act of sensation is as much that of feeling as of the physical senses, i.e. "know in the heart".  To feel good, to be happy - tumtum kloshe.
to fell (a tree) - whim, mamook whim - Gibbs gives this word as of Wasco origin, and says it is "of local use only", but I think its usage may have been wider.  Possibly related to wind/win, because of the role wind plays in the natural falling of trees.  Can also mean to wrestle ("to fell a man").
to find - klap -   Mamook klap - to seek ("make found"). Klap tenass - to be with child.  Klap tumtum, klap kumtux - more specifically "to remember" than simply klap.
to fix - mamook kloshe.  Also means to heal, to mend, to repair
to fly - kawak
to forget - mahlie, mahlee, malee - NB mahlie can also mean "to marry".   (Hmm.  I wonder if there's a connection - "to forget what sex is like", "to forget personal freedom". Okook cultus heehee - this is a little joke).  The difference is actually that the word meaning "to marry" has an ee-ay diphthong instead of the "ee" ending of the word meaning "to forget".

to gain - tolo - Perhaps related to tola, dollah - dollar, money.  Also means to earn, to win, to control
to gallop - kwalal-kwalalthe accent is on the second syllable of each kwalal.  NB difference from kalakala - bird.  Also NB klatawa kopa kiuatan - to ride a horse, to go by horse.
to gamble - lahal, slahal, itlokum. All of these are names of native games and pasttimes. Gambling in general might have been referred to by huyhuy (trade, bargain), but I'm not sure about that; amusements in general are hee-hee, or mamook hee-hee.
to gather grain - hokumelh.  To gather together something else (other than something resembling grain, e.g. gold dust) would be a construction using iskum.
to get - Iskum - Iskum Compounds - Maika na iskum? - Did you get it? Do you have it?  Ticky Iskum - want to have/own.  In the English sense of "to get" scared, "to get" strange, "to get" cold, the verb chako was used, i.e. "to come", "to become"
to get up -  get-upGet-up also means sunrise, as does "sun get-up" NB here "sun" means "day".  Mamook get-up may also be used, but can mean "to wake [someone up]".  Get-up might also mean to get up from a seat or a place at the table, but I'm not sure; mamook mitwhit is more likely for that context.  Not to be confused with the non-Jargon "giddy-up!".
to give - Potlatch, Patlatch - As a noun, a gift, a giving, or a gift-feast, one of the main instruments of Northwest society/economy and a lynchpin of ceremonial and political activity between different families, bands and nations.  Mamook potlatch - to make a gift (of something) or to throw a potlatch-feast. The institution of the potlatch was a foundation of Northwest Coast society and economics, and is worthy of a whole webpage of its own.
to gladden - mamook kloshe, mamook tumtum kloshe (i.e. to make happy).
to glean - hokumelh - the meaning here is purely agricultural- the meaning here is purely agricultural, not as in gleaning information.
to go - klatawa, klatwa, kladwa -   Klatawa teawhit - to walk, to go on foot.  Klatawa kopa kiuatan or klatawa kopa cayoosh - to ride a horse.  Klatawa kiuatan would more likely mean "the horse goes", "the horse is walking". Klatawa kopa boat or klatawa kopa ship - to take a boat, or to sail. Klatawa sail - to unfurl the sails, to sail by wind.  In the historic context, I would consider klatawa kopa ship to involve a major journey, as ship referred to ocean-going sailing ships or, later on, to steamers. Klatawa kopa sail would mean "to to by sailboat" (as opposed to steam or paddle/oarcraft). Mamook klatawa - to send. See Mamook Compounds.
to go back -  kalapi, kilapi, kilapie - See Kilapi Compounds.

to go on foot - klatawa teawhit  See Mamook Compounds.
to gore (as an ox) - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  Klemahun opoots - bee.
to haul - haul, mamook haul
to haul tight - hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, also means to tighten (a rope)NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit.
to have - Iskum - Iskum Compounds - Maika na iskum? - Did you get it? Do you have it?  Ticky Iskum - want to have/own.  Iskum was NOT used to form the past tense, as is common in Indo-European languages with verbs meaning "to have".
to have a mind to do something - Tumtum -.  Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds. Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed Heehee tumtum - to be amused  Klee tumtum - to be happy Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind.  If used to mean "to sense something", the act of sensation is as much that of feeling as of the physical senses, i.e. "know in the heart".
to help - mamook elann, mamook help.
to hide - ipsoot - mamook ipsoot - to hide, to be hidden, lit. to make hidden.
to hit - kwulh, kwult - NB kwetlh means proud, unwavering; kwutl means to push or squeeze (as in packing) or to haul tight or make fast. Kwutl also means to to wound with an arrow or gun, or to strike with a stick or stone or in any matter without cutting (i.e. with a blunt object).  Cutting is tl'kope, spearing is klemahun.
to hold - Iskum - Iskum Compounds - Maika na iskum? - Did you get it? Do you have it?  Ticky Iskum - want to have/own
to hook - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  Klemahun opoots - bee.

to ingest - muckamuck -   Mamook muckamuck - cook food, make dinner. Muckamuck chuck - to drink.  Olo muckamuck - to be hungry. Hyas muckamuck - feast, big meal.  Hiyu muckamuck - lots of food.  High muckamuck - bigshot, one who sits at the head table, corruption of hiyu/hyas muckamuck - (somebody) with lots of food.  Giving away copious amounts of food (and lots of other stuff) at the potlatch (a big feast, lit. a big give-away) distinguished someone in local society.
to instruct - Mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh.  To instruct in the sense of education would be mahsh kumtux or potlatch kumtux Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to intend - Tumtum -.  Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds. Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed  Heehee tumtum - to be amused  Klee tumtum - to be happy Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind.
 

to jump - sopena

to kick - Chuk-kin - Gibbs says this word was of local use in the Chehalis language region only.  A more truly jargon version might be mamook lepee - "make with the foot" or kwulh lepee - "strike with the foot".  However, since chuk-kin is from a Salishan language group, there is a probability that a similar word would be found among the Chinook-speakers of other Salishan districts of the Coast and Interior - in other words, throughout the majority of the Chinook-speaking region.
to kill - mamook memaloose, mamook mimloost - also means "to play dead", i.e. "to make (like) dead", which could also be expressed by kahkwa memaloose
to knock - ko-ko - perhaps originally a compound of ko - i.e. "someone's come" (as well as onomatopaeoia),  Koko stick - woodpecker Kloshe koko stick - (better) knock on wood
to know - Tumtum -.  Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds. Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed  Heehee tumtum - to be amused  Klee tumtum - to be happy Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind.
to know - Kumtux, kumptus, kommatux - Note that tumtum as to think refers more to feeling, kumtux more to understanding in the abstract sense, as in the way of knowledge or concrete things known. Kumtux Compounds.
to know how to do something - Kumtux, kumptus, kommatux - Note that tumtum as to think refers more to feeling, kumtux more to understanding in the abstract sense, as in the way of knowledge or concrete things known. Kumtux CompoundsKiuatan yaka kumtux cooley - fast horse, race horse

to laugh - heehee
to leave - Mahah, mahish, mahshMost common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.  Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.  Mahsh kow - to untie. Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to let go - Mahah, mahish, mahshMost common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.  Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.  Mahsh kow - to untie. Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds.  NB stoh, mahsh kow - to untie, to loosen.
to lean - lagh, lah.
to leave off - kopet, kobit, kobet, kapetKopet Compounds.
to lick - klakwun - Apparently from klak - to take off.  Klakwun lassiet - to lick a plate.  Klakwun latab - to wipe a table.
to lift - haul, mamook haul
to like - Tikegh, tikke, ticky - Hyas ticky - to long for, to pine, to greatly want/desire.  Ikta maika ticky?  - What do you want?  Wake ticky kahkwa wawa naika - "do not speak like that to me"., i.e. "do not want (presume) that of me".  Ticky muckamuck - want food, need food, more meaning "get some" rather than "hungry"; olo muckamuck more means "hungry" per se.  Tikegh Compounds.
to live - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to live at/in - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - "Sit down!" Also NB"to be alive" - wind, iskum wind.  Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to look - Nanitch -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to look for - Nanitch -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to loose(n) - stoh, mahsh
to love - Tikegh, tikke, ticky - Hyas ticky - to long for, to pine, to greatly want/desire.  Ikta maika ticky?  - What do you want?  Wake ticky kahkwa wawa naika - "do not speak like that to me"., i.e. "do not want (presume) that of me".  Ticky muckamuck - want food, need food, more meaning "get some" rather than "hungry"; olo muckamuck more means "hungry" per se.  Tikegh Compounds.
to make - mamook - Similar to the French "faire". Extensively used for compounds - Mamook CompoundsBUT NB Mamooks - deeds; and mamook also means "an action" and always implies one in any compound, and can be used with nearly any other word, including words that are themselves already verbs.  Mamook kloshe - to fix, to heal, to get better (chako kloshe also). Mamook huy-huy - to strike a deal, to do business.  Mamook ikpooie - to hide, to make hidden.  Mamook klatawa - to go, to make go.  Mamook mahkook - to go shopping, to do business.  NB in Grande Ronde OR Chinuk-wawa mamook (mamuk as they spell it down there) is an obscenity for copulation; for regular use as to do, to use, etc. the word munk is used there.
to make fast - kwutl - also means to squeeze (as in packing), to make tight, to push. NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit.  Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope).
to make tight - kwutl - also means to squeeze (as in packing), to make fast, to push.  NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit.  Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope).
to make good - mamook kloshe - also means to fix, to repair, to mend, to heal.  If in reference to a business dealing, then mamook kloshe mahkook or mamook kloshe huy-huy would work, but these could also mean "good business" in general.-
to marry -  mahlie, mahlies, mahliay - NB Mahlie also means to forget.   (Hmm.  I wonder if there's a connection - "to forget what sex is like", "to forget personal freedom".  Okook cultus heehee - this is a little joke).  The difference is actually that the word meaning "to marry" has an ee-ay diphthong instead of the "ee" ending of the word meaning "to forget".
to mistake  - tseepie - tseepie wayhut - to take the wrong road.
 

to need - tikegh, tikke, ticky - Hyas ticky - to long for, to pine, to greatly want/desire.  Ikta maika ticky?  - What do you want?  Wake ticky kahkwa wawa naika - "do not speak like that to me"., i.e. "do not want (presume) that of me".  Ticky muckamuck - want food, need food, more meaning "get some" rather than "hungry"; olo muckamuck more means "hungry" per se.  Tikegh Compounds.

to order -Mahah, mahish, mahsh; also mahsh wawa, mahish wawa, mahah wawa  -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?).  Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds

to part with - Mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to petrify - mamook stone.  NB stone also means testicle(s).
to play dead - mamook memaloose, mamook mimloost - also to kill, i.e. "to make (like) dead", which could also be expressed by kahkwa memaloose
to pour, to pour out - wagh, mamook wagh -   Also means "empty" ("poured out"), also to spill to vomit, to empty..
to push (and/or as in packing) - kwutl - also means to squeeze (as in packing), to make fast, to make tight NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit.  Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope).

to reach (somewhere), to arrive at -  ko -
to receive - Iskum - Iskum Compounds - Maika na iskum? - Did you get it? Do you have it?  Ticky Iskum - want to have/own
to receive - Potlatch, Patlatch - As a noun, a gift, a giving, or a gift-feast, one of the main instruments of Northwest society/economy and a lynchpin of ceremonial and political activity between different families, bands and nations.  Iskum, which also means "to have", was also used to mean "to receive" as well as "to take", "to hold" etc. Cultus potlatch - a gift, or a worthless gift.
to relate - yiem; also "a story" when used as a noun.  The Chinook loan-word ekahnam was also used on the Lower Columbia, the Salishan loan-word siyem in the Fraser-Thompson.
to release -Mahah, mahish, mahshMost common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.  Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.  Mahsh kow - to untie. Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to remain - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to remember - klapMamook klap - to seek ("make found"). Klap tenass - to be with child. Klap tumtum, klap kumtux - more specifically "to remember" than simply klap.
to remember - Kumtux, kumptus, kommatux - Note that tumtum as to think refers more to feeling, kumtux more to understanding in the abstract sense, as in the way of knowledge or concrete things known. Kumtux Compounds.
to remove - Mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to return -  kalapi, kilapi, kilapie - See Kilapi Compounds.
to reverse -  kalapi, kilapi, kilapie - See Kilapi Compounds.
to ride - klatawa, klatawa kopa kiuatan (alt klatwa, kladwa)-   Klatawa teawhit - to walk, to go on foot.  Klatawa kopa kiuatan or klatawa kopa cayoosh - to ride a horse.  Klatawa kiuatan would more likely mean "the horse goes", "the horse is walking".  Klatawa kopa boat or klatawa kopa ship - to take a boat, or to sail. Klatawa sail - to unfurl the sails, to sail by wind.  In the historic context, I would consider klatawa kopa ship to involve a major journey, as ship referred to ocean-going sailing ships or, later on, to steamers. Klatawa kopa sail would mean "to to by sailboat" (as opposed to steam or paddle/oarcraft). Mamook klatawa - to send. See Mamook Compounds.
to rise [from sleep, from bed] - get-upGet-up also means sunrise, as does sun get-up NB here sun means "day". Mamook get-up may also be used, but can mean "to wake [someone up]". Get-up might also mean to get up from a seat or a place at the table, but I'm not sure; mamook mitwhit is more likely for that context.  Not to be confused with the non-Jargon "giddy-up!".  The other English sense of "to rise" (upwards) is klatawa saghalie (or another verb of motion than saghalie)
to run - cooley, coolie  NB also mamook cooley, but this also means "to make to run"

to search for - nanitch, nanich -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to see - nanitch, nanich -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to seek - mamook klap -   Mamook klap - to seek ("make found").  Klap tenass - to be with child -> mamook klap tenas - to make with child (i.e. through sex or midwifery).
to sell - mahkook.  Also means "things bought" when used as a noun, and also means "to buy".  Mamook mahkook, to do the shopping, to buy/sell things.  The general sense of doing business is given by huy-huy or mamook huy-huy, which is not as specific to buying certain things.
to sell -Mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to send -Mahah, mahish, mahshMost common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.  Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.  Mahsh kow - to untie. Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to send - mamook klatawa - See Mamook Compounds, Klatawa Compounds
to shake (gently) - to-to - other meanings for to-to are to winnow, to sift
to shake (violently) - hullel - also means "shaken" when used as an adjective.  The sense here is of violent shaking, or trembling, as in a fever or in nervousness
to shudder - hullel - also means "shaken" when used as an adjective.  The sense here is of violent shaking, or trembling, as in a fever or in nervousness
to shut - ikpooie, mamook ikpooieMamook ikpooie could also mean "to surround".  Ikpooie is also just an adective for "shut".  NB ipsoot - to hide, hidden.
to sift - to-to -
to sing - shantie, shauntie - also means "a song".  Older prononciations would likely resemble the French "chanter", i.e. shauntie, later on pronounced as the English "shanty", i.e. shantie.
to sit - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to sit down - Mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to sit (i.e. when already sat) - mitwhit - . Mitwhit youtl- to stand proud, to stand tall. Mitwhit skookum- to resist, to stand up (bravely).  NB Mitwhit stick - a ship's mast.
to sleep - moosum - as a noun simply means "sleep".  Mamook moosum - "is sleeping" or "make to sleep", "put someone to sleep".
to sneak away - kapswalla klatawa - NB difference from kapswalla mamook - to use stealth, to do secretly.
to sneak out - kapswalla klatawa - NB difference from kapswalla mamook - to use stealth, to do secretly.
to speak to - Mahah, mahish, mahsh; also mahsh wawa, mahish wawa, mahah wawa  -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?).  Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to spear - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  NB Klemahun opoots - bee.
to spill - wagh, mamook wagh -   Also means "empty" ("poured out") plus to empty, to vomit, to pour
to squeeze (as in packing) - kwutl - also means to push, to make fast, to make tight.  NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit. Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope).
to stab - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  Klemahun opoots - bee.
to steal away - kapswalla klatawa - NB difference from kapswalla mamook - to use stealth, to do secretly.
to stoop - lagh, lah.  Also means to lean, to bend over.
to stop - kopet, kobit, kobet, kapetKopet Compounds.  To make something or someone stop - mamook kopet.
to stand - mitwhit - .  Mitwhit youtl- to stand proud, to stand tall.  Mitwhit skookum- to resist, to stand up (bravely).  NB Mitwhit stick - a ship's mast.
to stand guard - nanitch -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to stand up - mitwhit - .  Mitwhit youtl- to stand proud, to stand tall.  Mitwhit skookum- to resist, to stand up (bravely).  NB Mitwhit stick - a ship's mast.
to stay still - mitwhit - .  Mitwhit youtl- to stand proud, to stand tall.  Mitwhit skookum- to resist, to stand up (bravely).  NB Mitwhit stick - a ship's mast.
to stay - mitlite, mitlait - NB As an imperative - Sit down! Also used idiomaticlaly where English might use "to have", i.e. "there is"; and as a question by intonation "is there?".  Mitlite kopa house - he/she/it is in the house.  Mitlite hiyu samman kopa maika? - "Have you plenty of salmon", i.e. "Are there many salmon with you?". or lit. "do you have lots of salmon?"  Kah naika mitlite? - Where do you live?  In modern usage, this is in a telephone or internet conversation could mean "where are you?"  Mitlite keekwullie - to sit down, to put under. also perhaps "to be abased" although this would better be said as "mahsh keekwulee"  Kunsih tillikum mitlite? - How many people are/were there?  Mitlite tenas - to be with child, idiomatically, although this could also mean "to be small". Cultus mitlite - to loiter, to stop anywhere without particular reason; and can also mean "it/he/she is useless/evil/commonplace.
to steal - kapswalla NB klatawa kapswalla - to go stealthily, "to steal" in the older English sense of "stealing about the garden"
to strike with a stick or stone, or in any matter without cutting - kwulh, kwult - NB kwetlh means proud, unwavering; kwutl means to push or squeeze (as in packing) or to haul tight or make fast.  Kwulh also means to wound with an arrow or gun, or to hit.  Cutting is tl'kope, spearing is klemahun.
to surround - mamook ikpooieMamook ikpooie could also mean "to surround".  Ikpooie can also be used as an adjective or adverb e.g. ikpooie lakaset - a closed box; although literally means "the box is shut".
to swim - sitshum
to take - iskum - Iskum Compounds - Maika na iskum? - Did you get it? Do you have it?  Ticky Iskum - want to have/own
to take a boat - klatawa kopa boat   Klatawa sail - to unfurl the sails, to sail by wind.  In the historic context, I would consider klatawa kopa ship to involve a major journey, as ship referred to ocean-going sailing ships or, later on, to steamers. Klatawa kopa sail could also mean "to to by sailboat" (as opposed to steam or paddle/oarcraft). Mamook klatawa - to send. See Mamook Compounds.
to take charge - tolo - Perhaps related to tola, dollah - dollar, money
to take care - nanitch -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to tell - mahah, mahish, mahsh; also mahsh wawa, mahish wawa, mahah wawa  -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?).  Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to tell a story - yiem, mamook yiem - yiem is also "a story" if used as a noun. The Chinook loan-word ekahnam was also used on the Lower Columbia, the Salishan loan-word siyem in the Fraser-Thompson.
to think - kumtux, kumptus, kommatux - Note that tumtum as to think refers more to feeling, kumtux more to understanding in the abstract sense, as in the way of knowledge or concrete things known. Kumtux Compounds.
to think - tumtum   Also means "heart", "mind", "will" and when used creatively has a wide variety of potential compounds. Skookum tumtum - to be brave, to be strong-hearted, to be firm Sick tumtum - to feel unwell, to be sad, to be depressed  Heehee tumtum - to be amused  Klee tumtum - to be happy Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind.  If used to mean "to sense something", the act of sensation is as much that of feeling as of the physical senses, i.e. "know in the heart".
to throw away - mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon.  Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat. Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes. Mahsh kow - to untie.  Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to tie - kow, mamook kow -  NB mahsh kow - untie   Mahsh - to release, to let go.
to tie up - kow, mamook kow -  NB mahsh kow - untie   Mahsh - to release, to let go.
to tighten a rope - mamook kwutl, hyas mamook kwutl - also means to haul tight.  NB kwetlh - proud; perhaps a variation of youtl, which has the same meaning.  Note also the difference to kwulh or kwult - to strike or hit.
to tip (a boat) - lagh, lah.
to trade - huyhuy, hui-hui - This is thought to originate from French oui-oui/ouai-ouai (yes, yes), referring to the conclusion of a deal, or spoken in encouragement of one.  Mamook huyhuy - to strike a deal.
to trade - mahkook.
to tremble - hullel - also means "shaken" when used as an adjective.  The sense here is of violent shaking, or trembling, as in a fever or in nervousness.  For gentle trembling, to-to (to sift) is used.
to travel - klatawa, klatwa, kladwa - Klatawa teawhit - to walk, to go on foot.  Klatawa kopa kiuatan or klatawa kopa cayoosh - to ride a horse. Klatawa kiuatan would more likely mean "the horse goes", "the horse is walking". Klatawa kopa boat or klatawa kopa ship - to take a boat, or to sail. Klatawa sail - to unfurl the sails, to sail by wind.  In the historic context, I would consider klatawa kopa ship to involve a major journey, as ship referred to ocean-going sailing ships or, later on, to steamers. Klatawa kopa sail would mean "to to by sailboat" (as opposed to steam or paddle/oarcraft). Mamook klatawa - to send. See Mamook Compounds.
to turn -  kalapi, kilapi, kilapie - See Kilapi Compounds.
to turn out - Mahah, mahish, mahsh -   Most common form seen for this word is mahsh. Mahsh chuck kopa boat - bail out the boat.  Mahsh okook samman - throw away that salmon. Mahsh maika capo - take off your coat.  Mahsh tenas - to have a child, to give birth. Yaka mahsh tumtum kopa naika - he has given me his orders, he has told me his wishes.  Mahsh kow - to untie. Mahsh stone - to castrate ("to lose one's self-respect?). Mahsh Keekwulee - to humiliate, to demote, to make low.  Mahsh Compounds
to turn over -  kalapi, kilapi, kilapie - See Kilapi Compounds.
to turn to stone - mamook stone.  NB stone also means testicle(s).
to turn upside down - kalapi, kilapi, kilapie - - See Kilapi Compounds.

to understand - Kumtux, kumptus, kommatux - Note that tumtum as to think refers more to feeling, kumtux more to understanding in the abstract sense, as in the way of knowledge or concrete things known. Kumtux CompoundsKumtux Dutchman wawa - to understand German, or to be able to speak German. (Dutchman could also mean Dutch, Norwegian, or any other northen or eastern European language/people other than English and French)
to untie - stoh, mahsh kow
to upset [something] - kalapi, kilapi, kilapie ( i.e to turn over).  See Kilapi Compounds.
to upset [someone] - mamook tumtum cultus, mamook tumtum mesachie (to make feel bad).
to use - mamook - Similar to the French "faire". Extensively used for compounds - Mamook CompoundsBUT NB Mamooks - deeds; and mamook also means "an action" and always implies one in any compound.  Mamook kloshe - to fix, to heal, to get better (chako kloshe also).  Mamook huy-huy - to strike a deal, to do business.  Mamook ikpooie - to hide, to make hidden.  Mamook klatawa - to go, to make go. Mamook mahkook - to go shopping, to do business.  NB in Grande Ronde OR Chinuk-wawa mamook is an obscenity for copulation; for regular use as to do, to use, etc. the word munk is used there.
to use [something] - mamook [substitute word for object].  e.g. mamook lamahto, use the hammer or "to hammer".

to vomit - wagh, mamook wagh -   Also means "empty" ("poured out")  plus to spill, to pour, to empty.

to wait - mitwhit - .  Mitwhit youtl- to stand proud, to stand tall.  Mitwhit skookum- to resist, to stand up (bravely).  NB Mitwhit stick - a ship's mast.
to wake up -  get-upGet-up also means sunrise, as does "sun get-up" NB here "sun" means "day".  Mamook get-up may also be used, but can mean "to wake [someone up]".  Get-up might also mean to get up from a seat or a place at the table, but I'm not sure; mamook mitwhit is more likely for that context.  Not to be confused with the non-Jargon "giddy-up!".
to walk - klatawa, klatwa, kladwa -   Klatawa teawhit - to walk, to go on foot.  Mamook klatawa - to send. See Mamook Compounds.
to want - Tikegh, tikke, ticky - Hyas ticky - to long for, to pine, to greatly want/desire.  Ikta maika ticky?  - What do you want?  Wake ticky kahkwa wawa naika - "do not speak like that to me"., i.e. "do not want (presume) that of me".  Ticky muckamuck - want food, need food, more meaning "get some" rather than "hungry"; olo muckamuck more means "hungry" per se.  Tikegh Compounds.
to wash - wash.  Also mamook wash.
to watch - Nanitch -   Kloshe nanitch - to stand guard, to take care, "watch out!".  Kloshe nanitch is the password/watchword of the Rocky Mountain Rangers of the British Columbia Militia (for you "Boston" types, that's something like a volunteer National Guard.
to win - tolo - Perhaps related to tola, dollah - dollar, money
to winnow - to-to - Also means to shake gently.
to wipe - klakwun - Apparently from klak - to take off.  Klakwun lassiet - to lick a plate.  Klakwun latab - to wipe a table.
to wish- Tikegh, tikke, ticky - Hyas ticky - to long for, to pine, to greatly want/desire.  Ikta maika ticky?  - What do you want?  Wake ticky kahkwa wawa naika - "do not speak like that to me"., i.e. "do not want (presume) that of me".  Ticky muckamuck - want food, need food, more meaning "get some" rather than "hungry"; olo muckamuck more means "hungry" per se.  Tikegh Compounds.
to work stone (as in masonry) - mamook stone.  Also means to turn to stone, or to petrify.  NB stone also means testicle(s).
to wound - klemahun - Naika klemahun samman - I spear salmon.  Klemahun opoots - bee.
to wound with an arrow or gun -kwulh, kwult - NB kwetlh means proud, unwavering; kwutl means to push or squeeze (as in packing) or to haul tight or make fast. Kwulh also means to hit, or to strike with a stick or stone or in any matter without cutting (i.e. with a blunt object).  Cutting is tl'kope, spearing is klemahun.
to wrestle ("to fell a man") - whim, mamook whim - Gibbs gives this word as of Wasco origin, and says it is "of local use only", but I think its usage may have been wider.  Whim usually means to fall (a tree).  Possibly related to wind/win, because of the role wind plays in the natural falling of trees.

 

Mamook lapeep - to share a pipe, i.e. to have a meeting or a chat
Mamook huyhuy - to strike a bargain, to negotiate
Mamook pehpah - to write, to make a contract
Mamook tzum, Mamook tzumtzum - to write
NB Tzum illahee - surveyed land, so mamook tzum illahee - to survey land (to mark the land).
Mamook kumtux - to make understood, to forge an understanding, to come to agreement, to share an idea.
Mamook kumtux lalang, mamook kumtux wawa - to know how to speak a language, to know how to talk.
See kumtux compounds.
Mamook tumtum - to make up one's mind
Mamook kloshe tumtum - to make friends, to make peace ("to make good feelings")
Mamook kloshe - to fix, to mend, to heal, to make better, "works good"
NB chako kloshe - to get better, i.e. to become better

Mamook wawa - to speak, to make a speech
Mamook kwolen - to listen

Mamook hee-hee, mamook klee - to make laugh, to make/become happy, to make a joke.
NB Cultus hee-hee - only a jest, "I'm only making a joke".
Mamook cly - to make cry, to sadden, to become sad.  NB cly is a verb in its own right.
Mamook solleks - to make angry, to become angry
Mamook kwass - to frighten, to tame (an animal)
Mamook cultus - to accomplish nothing, to work uselessly, "all that work for nothing", to make something worthless or broken
NB See Cultus Compounds below.
Mamook chickamin - to make money, to earn, to win (at gambling)
Mamook potlatch - to make a gift (of something) or to hold a potlatch-feast
Mamook nanitch - to show, to make a show, to show off
Hyas yaka mamook nanitch - he's really showing off, he's all show.

Mamook pahtl - to fill
Mamook wagh - to pour out
Mamook ikpooie - to shut, also to surround
Mamook hahlakl - to open
Mamook laplash - to spread out
Mamook klah - to uncover, to expose
Mamook klap - to seek ("to make found")
Mamook ipsoot - to hide, to make hidden
Mamook keekwullie - to lower
Mamook saghalie - to raise, to make sacred

Mamook hullel - to shake, to activate, to become active
Mamook haul - to haul or pull. Haul may be used by itself
Mamook klak - to take off, to remove
Mamook klak kopa wayhut - get off the road.
Mamook klak stone kiuatan - to castrate a horse.
Hyas mamook kwutl - to haul tight, to tighten (a rope)
Mamook lolo - to roll up
Perhaps from both senses of lolo - to carry and round.
Mamook laham - to row
Mamook isick - to paddle
Mamook klatawa - to send, to make to go, to make travel
Mamook chako - to fetch, to make to come
Mamook kalapie - to bring, to send back, to turn around, to carry back (perhaps "to change one's mind")
Mamook illahee - to dig, perhaps to mine
Mamook klawhap - to dig a hole

Mamook muckamuck - to cook or prepare food
Mamook piah - to cook, to burn
Mamook waum - to heat
Mamook liplip - to boil, to cause to boil
Mamook lapellah - to roast over a fire
Mamook lum - to distill, to go get the booze, to get drunk
Mamook chuck - to make water, to go get water
Mamook klahanie - to put outside
Mamook klahanie okook - put that out (i.e. outside)

to paint - mamook paint, mamook pent.
Mamook bloom - to sweep
Mamook wash - to do the washing
Mamook wagh - to pour out
Mamook liplip - to boil, to set to boil, perhaps to stir
Mamook dly - to dry (clothes), i.e. to put out to dry
NB Chako dly - to become dry.
Mamook tupsin, mamook tupshin - to sew, to mend, to patch

Mamook tsugh - to split, as in wood
See Chako tsugh in Chako compounds.
Mamook tsugh illahee - to plow the land
Mamook comb illahee - to plow (the land)
Also mamook leshaloo ("to use the plow") and klugh illahee ("to tear the land") or mamook klugh illahee.  Although descriptive of what a plow does, the latter usage seems indicative of the attitudes of natives towards farming's effect/impact on the earth.
Mamook klimmin - to soften as by dressing a skin, or to soften up one's resolve or to make someone lie or to make a lie.
Mamook kull - to harden, to cause to become hard.  NB Chako kull - to become hard
Mamook kwunnum - to count ("to make numbers")
Mamook kunsih - to count ("to make how many"), to find out who

Mamook latleh, mamook tren - to make a lot of noise, i.e. to make like a train.  Also found with "kopa" as a preposition, i.e. mamook kopa latleh
Mamook tintin - to ring a bell, to play an instrument

to use stealth- kapswalla mamook - ("to steal" in its alternate/archaic sense in English)  NB difference from Kapswalla klatawa - to steal away, to sneak out, to sneak away, to move about steathily.
to do secretly- kapswalla mamook - ("to steal" in its alternate/archaic sense in English)  NB difference from Kapswalla klatawa - to steal away, to sneak out, to sneak away, to move about steathily.

 

to keep knowledge - iskum kumtux - e.g. Yaka iskum kumtux - he knows about things, i.e "he has knowledge".
to move about steathily -kapswalla klatawa - NB difference from kapswalla mamook - to use stealth, to do secretly.
 
to have knowledge - iskum kumtux - e.g. Yaka iskum kumtux - he knows about things, i.e. "he has knowledge".

to be knowledgeable - iskum kumtux - e.g. Yaka iskum kumtux - he knows about things, i.e. "he has knowledge".

to know how to lie - kumtux kliminawhit - e.g. - kumtux kliminawhit - to know how to lie, to know how to deceive, to understand lying, to recognize a lie/liar e.g. - (yaka) kumtux kliminawhit - he is a liar ("he knows how to lie", "he knows how to be a liar") and hyas kumtux kliminawhit - he is a great liar ("he knows well how to lie").  Conceivably kumtux kliminawhit could also mean "knows a lie/liar", where the speaker and/or subject isn't a liar.

to know how to deceive - kumtux kliminawhit - e.g. - kumtux kliminawhit - to know how to lie, to know how to deceive, to understand lying, to recognize a lie/liar e.g. - (yaka) kumtux kliminawhit - he is a liar ("he knows how to lie", "he knows how to be a liar") and hyas kumtux kliminawhit - he is a great liar ("he knows well how to lie").  Conceivably kumtux kliminawhit could also mean "knows a lie/liar", where the speaker and/or subject isn't a liar.

to understand lying - kumtux kliminawhit - e.g. - kumtux kliminawhit - to know how to lie, to know how to deceive, to understand lying, to recognize a lie/liar e.g. - (yaka) kumtux kliminawhit - he is a liar ("he knows how to lie", "he knows how to be a liar") and hyas kumtux kliminawhit - he is a great liar ("he knows well how to lie").  Conceivably kumtux kliminawhit could also mean "knows a lie/liar", where the speaker and/or subject isn't a liar.

to recognize a lie/liar - kumtux kliminawhit - e.g. - kumtux kliminawhit - to know how to lie, to know how to deceive, to understand lying, to recognize a lie/liar e.g. - (yaka) kumtux kliminawhit - he is a liar ("he knows how to lie", "he knows how to be a liar") and hyas kumtux kliminawhit - he is a great liar ("he knows well how to lie").  Conceivably kumtux kliminawhit could also mean "knows a lie/liar", where the speaker and/or subject isn't a liar.

to explain - mamook kumtux.

to teach - mamook kumtux.

to make understood - mamook kumtux.

to forge an understanding - mamook kumtux.

to come to agreement - mamook kumtux.

to share an idea - mamook kumtux.

Wawa - to talk, to say, to speak.  Also means "speech" and "words", and "language". Note Cantonese wa - word, wa-wa - words.

Mamook [x]  lalang is the same as mamook [x] wawa - to speak [x] language, except in the case of the jargon itself, for which only mamook Chinook wawa would be more specific, though unnecessary by context, perhaps; the preposition kopa might be used in these phrases following mamook.  Also mamook yiem - "to tell a story" may be the same as mamook wawa, to relate, to tell, although the latter instance more refers to making a speech, or having a conversation.

Klak, klah - off, to take off, to get off NB This is adjectival as much as it is a verb.  Mamook klak lassiet - take off the plates, remove the plates.  Klak kopa wayhut - to get out of the road.  Mamook klak stone kiuatan - to castrate a horse.
 

Tl'kope - to cut, to slice, to chop NB difference from t'kope - white. The "tl" sound is common in Northwest languages, and more resembles a "kl" or hard "lh"; "tl" commonly represents the same sound as "kl" in English-derived spellings of the Jargon; in reality they are the same sound - but as far as I know kl'kope was never used for this word.  All words that have "kl" in them could just as easily be spelled "tl", the sounds being indistinguishable and the spellings representative only of a choice made by the transcriber.  The same is true of words spelled with "lh", "lt" and "tlh" and the like.  See Pronunciation.

 


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