The LOCAL FOLKS
FIRST NATIONS and NATIVE AMERICAN


The following information is taken verbatim from The Fort Langley Journals, Appendix C: McDonald's Report To The Governor And Council, 25 February 1830.  This is but a small section of that report, see The Fort Langley Journals, edited by Morag MacLachlan for the full text.

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Boundary -- The district on its being first chalked out was to embrace that considerable tract of Country along the Coast from the South end of Puget Sound to the Northern extremity of the Gulf of Georgia including the Clalam Country and Vancouver's Island. Inland, from the first mentioned point it was to divide the trade with the Columbia by a line due East to the head of the Piscahoes river; and another supposed line from the coast to the Chilcoton Country might be said to terminate its linits in that quarter.  In this case the back and Eastern boundary would be circumscribed by the lower part of New Caledonia and the Country from which Thompson's river and Okanakan derive their returns.

Population.  The Indian population in this part of the World is very great, and were it not for the continual variance among themselves, especially the Warlike Tribes, would have been extremely dangerous to a handful of whites.  Beginning on the South side of De Fuca's Straits -- rounding the Sound and following the East Shore to the mouth of this river; then ascending it to the point where my return made on this head from Thompson's river in 1826/27 in that direction discontinued: from Simpson's Falls keeping the N.W. Bank again to the sea -- Coasting it to about Lat. 50 and then crossing over to the Island and following that shore until we again come to the Sts. the following general Abstract is the attempt we have made to arrive at something near the number of men inhabiting that space. vizt.

Tribes No. Men Names of Chiefs
Tlalams & W. of Sound
1st division
Tlalams [Clallams] 200 Stukeenum
Toannois [Twana] 50 Soukeenum
Squams [Suquamish] 60 Awonastun
  310 Total  
E.Shore South of Fraser's River
2nd Division
Nisquallies [Nisquallies] 40  
Pyallups [Puyallup] 40  
Sinawamus [Duwamish] 50  
Sinnahooms [Snohomish] 100 Waskalatchat
Skewhams [Skykomish] 50 are inland
Scatchads [Skagits] 90 Neetlum
Soquimmi [Snoqualmie] 50 inland
Smallons [Smaliwhu] 40 inland
Sinnamy [Swinomish]    
Whullummy [Lummi] 50  
Ossaaks [Nooksack] 40 Interior
Noheums 30  
Nahews 20  
Summacamus [Semiahmoo] 40  
  640 Total  
S.E. Bank of River to Falls & from thence both sides to forks of Thom. R.
3rd Division
Quaitlines [Kwantlens] 60 Nicameus
Smaise [Sumas] 40  
Tchulwhyooks [Chilliwacks] 60 Koomilus
Pellaults [Pilalts] 50 Tchoops
Skam & Swatch 100 Tamulston
Honellaque 90  
Kakumlutch 80  
Whuaquum 70 Kemwoon
Hutlehunssens 150  
Teitton [Taits from Hope to Yale] 200 Sopitchin
Nakhustons 160  
Kullulluctons 170  
Asnons 130  
Harvanos 70  
Specums [Spuzzum] 110  
Yalluachs 70  
Icquillus [Lower Thompson] 200  
Skochuck 130  
Whee y kum 240  
  2180 Total  
N.W. Bank from Falls to Coast
4th Division
Teets [Taits] 40  
Tchunns [Chehalis] 50  
Squaltes [Lillooet] 100 within
Musquams [Musqueams] 50 Harrison's R.
Kitchies [Katzie] 20 Sianton
  260 Total  
E. Shore N. of Fraser's R.
5th Division
Hoomus [Squamish] 90  
Shee-Challs [Sechelts] 50  
Squaltes (interior?) [Lillooet] 60 mix with the above
Tloohooses [Klahoose] 40  
Nonowuss 30  
  270 Total  
Vancouver's Island
6th Division
Tchalhulls [Comox] 50  
Nanimoos [Nanaimos] 100 Squagis & Pinnus
Cawaitchins [Cowichans] 200 Josua
Sanutch [Saanich] 60 Tcheenuk
Tchanmus [Songhees] 40  
Soaks [Sookes] 50  
  500 Total  
[Note: Modern terms for tribal names have been supplied by Wayne Suttles]
4160 Indians tho' a great number would not be considered incredible were the number but better proportioned and it did occur to myself as rather curious that the 50 or 60 miles between the Falls and the Forks of Thompson's River should accommodate nearly 1/3 of the whole: it is however the fact proved by repeated examinations of the Indians themselves and in particular the last mentioned chief on the 3rd division, who is mostly a resident here, & whose acct. of the lower Indians we knew to be correct.  When Gov. Simpson & myself came down 2 years ago & when our speed gave them but little time to shew themselves, the number appeared uncommon: & the nature of the river & manner of living account for it.  There is a perceptible difference between them and those of the Coast, & altho' they are perhaps fully as fond of property and pilfering they have not I believe the same savage thirst for taking a man's life -- The Summcamus are the only Indians that came near us from the 2nd Division; but the Skins of the four last Tribes came thro' the medium of Traders.  Of those of the 5th the first Tribe only, and that in the Salmon Season but are no hunters -- Beyond the Nonowuss on one side of the Channel & the Tchulhutts on the other are the formidable Yewkaltas that may be about 300 men, but armed and equipped in a superior style.  All but the first and two last Tribes on the Island came this way in the Summer Season.  The Tlalums we never see.
Source for the above: The Fort Langley Journals, edited by Morag MacLachlan, Appendix C

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updated 21 July 2013